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Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyze (i.e. increase the rates of) chemical reactions. Almost all enzymes are proteins. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, the products. Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes to occur at significant rates. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell.
Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy (Ea or ΔG‡) for a reaction, thus dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze, nor do they alter the equilibrium of these reactions. However, enzymes do differ from most other catalysts by being much more specific. Enzymes are known to catalyze about 4,000 biochemical reactions. A few RNA molecules called ribozymes catalyze reactions, with an important example being some parts of the ribosome. Synthetic molecules called artificial enzymes also display enzyme-like catalysis.
Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules. Inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity; activators are molecules that increase activity. Many drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors. Activity is also affected by temperature, chemical environment (e.g. pH), and the concentration of substrate. Some enzymes are used commercially, for example, in the synthesis of antibiotics. In addition, some household products use enzymes to speed up biochemical reactions (e.g., enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein or fat stains on clothes; enzymes in meat tenderizers break down proteins, making the meat easier to chew).
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. In each pathway, a principal chemical is modified by chemical reactions. Enzymes catalyze these reactions, and often require dietary minerals, vitamins and other cofactors in order to function properly. Because of the many chemicals that may be involved, pathways can be quite elaborate. In addition, many pathways can exist within a cell. This collection of pathways is called the metabolic network. Pathways are important to the maintenance of homeostasis within an organism.
Metabolism is a step by step modification of the initial molecule to shape it into another product. The result can be used in one of three ways.
A molecule called a substrate enters a metabolic pathway depending on the needs of the cell and the availability of the substrate. An increase in concentration of anabolical and catabolical end products would slow the metabolic rate for that particular pathway.
Enzymes rule over all other nutrients.
Enzymes are responsible for nearly every facet of life and health
and far outweigh the importance of every other nutrient.
Enzymes are needed to help control all mental
and physical functions.
Each body cell has in excess of 100,000 enzyme particles necessary
for metabolic processes.
Enzymes cannot function properly without the
presence of other substances which are known as coenzymes.
Coenzymes are minerals, vitamins and proteins.
Once enzymes have completed their appointed task they are
For life to continue, you must have a constant enzyme supply which
requires continual replacement of enzymes.
Enzymes are found in all living cells including raw foods or
those that are cooked at a temperature lower than 110 degrees Fahrenheit.
Enzymes begin to perish when the temperature increases beyond 110
The degree of enzyme destruction is a function of time and
Enzymes are primarily proteins, yet enzymes need amino acids
for normal function.
Hormones are primarily proteins which require interaction with
enzymes to regulate body processes.
Enzymes aid in transforming proteins into amino acids.
Protein does not perform its function unless broken down into amino
acids can be considered as an enzyme carrier whose function is to
transport enzymes to various functions in the body.
Enzymes help extract chelated minerals from food.
Enzymes transform chelated minerals into an alkaline detoxifying
agent which combines with acid cellular wastes and toxic settlements
within the body thus neutralizing them and preparing them for elimination.
Enzymes use minerals to create an even balance of dissolved
solids both inside and outside the cells, thus equalizing both internal
and external pressures which we call osmotic equilibrium.
Vitamins are required as coenzymes to work with enzymes in
every chemical reaction in every cell of the body.
Without minerals extracted from food by enzymes, vitamins would be
unable to perform their function.
An enzyme deficiency must be carefully considered as a
possible precursor of bodily imbalance and consequent disease symptoms.
12. Enzymes are, therefore, justified as a supplemental dietary substance which need is parallel with mineral, vitamin and all other supportive therapies.